Geoff’s Online Permaculture Design Course offers students weekly question-and-answer sessions where Geoff addresses various questions via video. This particular question was selected from the 2021 collection. For additional permaculture knowledge, be sure to explore Geoff’s free Masterclass at


What composting method would you recommend if one doesn’t have access to a regular supply of animal manure?

Keytake Away

– Use high-nitrogen legumes like lucerne for vegan compost instead of animal manure.
– Lucerne breaks down nicely and turns dark like manure.
– Grow nitrogen-rich plants like herbs, legumes, or prune trees to use their green tips and pods.
– Balance out the nitrogen-rich material with other composting ingredients.
– Cutting back on plants can provide extra composting material.
– There are many nitrogen-rich plants to choose from to replace animal manure.

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About Geoff:

Geoff is a world-renowned permaculture consultant, designer, and teacher that has established demonstration sites that function as education centers in all the world’s major climates. Geoff has dedicated his life to spreading permaculture design across the globe and inspiring people to take care of the earth, each other, and to return the surplus.

About Permaculture:

Permaculture integrates land, resources, people, and the environment through mutually beneficial synergies – imitating the no waste, closed-loop systems seen in diverse natural systems. Permaculture applies holistic solutions that are applicable in rural and urban contexts and at any scale. It is a multidisciplinary toolbox including agriculture, water harvesting and hydrology, energy, natural building, forestry, waste management, animal systems, aquaculture, appropriate technology, economics, and community development.

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